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Skin's functions and layers

The Skin provides a physical and chemical protection from the outside environment.
It protecets us from ultra-violet (UV), radiation, dehydration and infections, pathogens. The skin help to control the body temperature and it  permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold. There is also a production of vitamin D in sunlight.  

Your skin  comprised of three main layers: epidermis, dermis, hypodermis.

The outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum is in contact with the outside environment.
The epidermis with the thicness from 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm, is composed in  90-95% of  keratinocytes.

In stratum spinosum  begings the process of renewal of the cells and keratinization. In this process the cells are dividing producing new cells. The morphological changes of keratinocytes start the synthesis of the important proteins (like keratin), which are the key components of the epidermal barrier and protect against water loss. But the intsive production and synthesis of epidermal proteins (profilagrin, loricrin, SPR (small proline-rich proteins), cornifin, involucrine) begins in the stratum spinosum. All of them are involved in the formation of horny plaques. In addition to proteins, the cells of the stratum granulosum produce glycolipids and sterols (e.g. acylglycosylceramide).
They create a water-impermeable barrier in the upper part of the layer.During the process of keratinization the  keratinocytes move towards the surface of the epidermis and eventually form a keratinized layer on the surface.  This migration takes useuely approximately 30 days.
The important is that the disturbances in the keratinization process lead to numerous skin diseases, including psoriasis.
As soon the new layers of cells are produced, the outer cells of the stratum corneum are enzymatically detached. This process is called desquamation. The barrier could be likened to a "brick and mortar".

In stratum basale there are  melanocytes  and merkel cells.  The melanocytes are cells that produce melanin. It is a compound involved in skin pigmentation produced in response to ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Melanin fulfills in the body is the protective function of the skin. Thanks to melanin the harmful compounds of ultraviolet radiation are blocked from entering the deeper layers of the skin. Merkel cells produce growth factors that regulate sweat glands, hair follicles, nail growth, and nerve function in skin.

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The dermis (dermis) with a thickness of 0.3 mm to 4 mm (depending on the site) is the inner layer of the skin between the epidermis (epidermis) and the subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis), in which there are: subcutaneous tissue with connective tissue , subcutaneous fat. In the deeper layers there are muscles and bones. The dermis can be ten times thicker than the epidermis. Almost 75% of the weight of the dermis (dermis) is made up of a matrix of collagen, an extracellular protein that provides structural support and elasticity to the skin. There are blood vessels in the dermis that provide nutrients for all layers of the skin. The dermis consists mainly of a matrix of extracellular proteins. It is fibroblasts - the cells of the dermis synthesize structural proteins such as collagen, which provides the structural support and elasticity of the skin. In the dermis (dermis), immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages and dendrocytes of the skin are involved in the skin's defense and modulate the response to injury. Subcutaneous fat cells provide energy reserves and structural support. They also help with thermoregulation. The hair follicle in the hairy parts of the skin is attached to the muscle, the hair follicle (arrector pili). They are located in the dermis and epidermis.

Healthy skin is a sign of overall health and can contribute to better mental and emotional health. Skin plays an important role in our perception of beauty and represents youth and vitality. When it is healthy, its layers work hard to protect us, but when it is threatened, its ability to act as an effective barrier is compromised.

That's why we've found the best ways to improve skin health to help maintain its protective functions.